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Antigravity - Wallace, Tampere
THE WALLACE INVENTIONS, SPIN ALIGNED NUCLEI, THE GRAVITOMAGNETIC FIELD,
AND THE TAMPERE EXPERIMENT: IS THERE A CONNECTION?
By: Robert Stirniman
Date: Tue, 19 May 1998 11:13:39 -0700
From: Robert Stirniman
To: Patrick Bailey
Subject: [Fwd: Wallace & Tampere (Long)]
The Wallace Inventions, Spin Aligned Nuclei, The Gravitomagnetic Field, and The
Tampere Experiment: Is there a connection?
By: Robert Stirniman, May 1998
During the 1960s through the mid 1970s, Henry William Wallace was a scientist at
GE Aerospace in Valley Forge PA, and GE Re-Entry Systems in Philadelphia. In the
early 1970s, Wallace was issued patents (1,2,3) for some unusual inventions
relating to the gravitational field. Wallace developed an experimental apparatus
for generating and detecting a secondary gravitational field, which he named the
kinemassic field, and which is now better known as the gravitomagnetic field.
Wallace's experiments were based on aligning the nuclear spin of elements and
isotopes which have an odd number of nucleons. These materials are characterized
by a total nuclear spin which is an odd integral multiple of one-half, resulting
in one nucleon with un-paired spin. Wallace drew an analogy between the un-
paired angular momentum in these materials, and the un-paired magnetic moments
of electrons in ferromagnetic materials.
Wallace created nuclear spin alignment by rapidly spinning a brass disk, of
which essentially all isotopes have an odd number of nucleons. Nuclear spin
becomes aligned in the spinning disk due to precession of nuclear angular
momentum in inertial space -- a process similar to the magnetization developed
by rapidly spinning a ferrous material (known as the Barnett effect). The
gravitomagnetic field generated by the spinning disk is tightly coupled (0.01
inch air gap) to a gravitomagnetic field circuit composed of material having
half integral nuclear spin, and analogous to magnetic core material in
transformers and motors. The gravitomagnetic field is transmitted through the
field circuit and focused by the field material to a small space where it can be
In his three patents, Wallace describes three different methods used for
detection of the gravitomagnetic field -- change in the motion of a body on a
pivot, detection of a transverse voltage in a semiconductor crystal, and a
change in the specific heat of a crystal material having spin-aligned nuclei. In
a direct analogy with a magnetic circuit, the relative amount of the detected
gravitomagnetic field always varied directly with the size of the air-gap
between the generator disk and the field circuit.
Wallace's patents are written in great detail, and he appears to be meticulous
in his experimental design and practice. In my opinion, it is nearly certain
that his experiments performed as claimed. None the less, there has been no
scientific acknowledgment whatsoever of Wallace's discoveries. An in-depth
search of the literature has uncovered only two references to Wallaces work (4,
5), and each of these references merely creates further mystery.
The necessary existence of a magnetic-like gravitational field has been well
established by physicists specializing in general relativity, gravitational
theories, and cosmology. But, the existence of this field is not well known in
other of arenas of physical science. The gravitomagnetic field was first
hypothesized by Heaviside in the 1880's. The field is predicted by general
relativity, and was first formulated in a relativistic context in 1918 by Lense
and Thirring (6). In 1961, Forward (7) was the first to express the
gravitational field equations in a vector form directly analogous and nearly
identical to Maxwells equations for electromagnetics.
During the last 20 years many other scientists, (8 to 17), have published
articles demonstrating the necessary existence of the gravitomagnetic field,
using arguments based on general relativity, special relativity, and the cause
and effect relationship which results from non-instantaneous propagation of
energy (retardation). Nearly all of these authors present the gravitational
field equations in a vector form similar to Maxwells equations. Some authors
comment that these equations provide fundamental insights into gravitation, and
it is unfortunate that they are not at all well known. Despite their relative
simplicity and possible practical value, Maxwells equations for gravitation do
not appear in any under- graduate physics textbook.
Just as in Maxwells equations for electromagnetics, it is found that in the
presence of a time varying gravitomagnetic flux there will always exist
concurrently a time varying gravitoelectric field. The secondary generated
gravitoelectric field is a dipole field, and unlike the background gravito-
electric field due to mass charges, the generated gravitoelectric field always
exists in closed loops. Henry Wallace recognized this and described it in his
Wallace also describes another effect which may result from generation of a
secondary gravitoelectric field. Wallace believed that a secondary gravito-
electric field can result in exclusion of an existing primary background field.
In other words, a gravitational shield can be created. The bulk of Wallace's
patents describe his experimental apparatus, and his detection of the
gravitomagnetic field. The effects detected are minuscule, and as such, may not
be of immediate practical value. In reading his patents it is possible to become
immersed in the detail of his experimental apparatus, and to neglect the
possible significance of the alternative embodiment of his invention (figures 7,
7A, and 7B of his first patent). The alternative embodiment uses a time varying
gravitomagnetic flux to create a secondary gravitoelectric field in an enclosed
shell of material in order to shield the background gravitoelectric field of the
Unfortunately, Wallace does not state whether this embodiment was ever actually
produced, and unlike the detailed discussion of his experimental apparatus, he
provides no experimental findings or data to back his claim. Nor does he provide
much in the way of theoretical arguments about how a secondary gravitoelectric
field can act to exclude a primary field, except to state: "It is well known
that nature opposes heterogeneous field flux densities."
Is it well known that nature opposes heterogeneous flux densities? Well, not to
me, and I can not find anything in the way of scientific literature to directly
support this idea. But it does seem to make sense. It could be argued thusly. In
a well-ordered manifold all derivatives of the fields, time-like and space-like,
must be continuous. If you force a field to exist in a region of space, the
existing background field is somehow required to form a pattern around or
smoothly merge with the created field. Nature does not permit flux lines to act
with cross-purposes and to exist with widely different directions in the same
region of space. Flux lines can never cross. Wallace seems to have gotten his
experiments right -- maybe he is also right in his claim of inventing a
In a ground breaking paper in 1966, Dewitt (18) was first to identify the
significance of gravitational effects in a superconductor. Dewitt demonstrated
that a magnetic-type gravitational field must result in the presence of fluxoid
quantization. In 1983, Dewitt's work was substantially expanded by Ross (19).
Beginning in 1991, Ning Li, at the University of Alabama Huntsville, and Douglas
Torr, formerly at Huntsville and now at the University of South Carolina, have
published a number of articles about gravitational effects in superconductors
(20, 21, 22). One interesting finding they have derived is the source of
gravitomagnetic flux in a type II superconductor material. Guess what? It is due
to spin alignment of the lattice ions.
Quoting from Li and Torr's second paper: "The interaction energy of the internal
magnetic field with the magnetic moment of the lattice ions drives the lattice
ions and superconducting condensate wave function to move together vortically
within the range of the coherent length and results in an induced precession of
the angular momentum of the lattice ions." And quoting from their third paper:
"Recently we demonstrated theoretically that the carriers of quantized angular
momentum are not the Cooper pairs but the lattice ions, which must execute
coherent localized motion consistent with the phenomenon of superconductivity."
And, "It is shown that the coherent alignment of lattice ion spins will generate
a detectable gravitomagnetic field, and in the presence of a time-dependent
applied magnetic vector potential field, a detectable gravitoelectric field."
Li and Torr also demonstrate that the gravitomagnetic field in a super-
conductor has a relatively large magnitude compared with the magnetic field -- a
factor of 10E11 times larger. The gravitational wave velocity in a
superconductor is estimated as a factor of two magnitudes smaller than the
velocity in free space. And the resulting estimate of relative gravito- magnetic
permeability is four magnitudes (10 thousand times) greater than the
permeability of free space. In their third paper, Torr and Li, demonstrate that
it is possible to generate a time varying gravitomagnetic field in a
superconductor, which must exist concurrently with a time varying
In 1995, Becker et al (23), show mathematically that a significant size
gravitomagnetic field must always exist along with a magnetic field whenever
there is flux pinning or other forms of flux trapping in a type II
superconductor. They propose a macroscopic experiment to detect the
gravitomagnetic field. Becker et al, choose not to speculate about the source of
the gravitomagnetic field, except to provide a brief comment that it may result
from spin of the lattice ions. One might ask, what is a pinning center if not a
microscopic hole which carries trapped flux, and what must be source of the
gravitomagnetic dipole moment if not the angular momentum of the lattice ions at
the pinning center?
In 1992, an experiment at Tampere University was reported by Podkletnov (24,
25). A torroidal shaped type II superconductor disk was suspended via the
Meissner effect by a constant vertical magnetic field, and was rapidly rotated
by a time varying horizontal magnetic field. Masses located in a cylindrical
spacial geometry above the rotating disk were found to lose up to 2% of their
weight. A gravitational shielding effect is claimed.
Is a time varying gravitomagnetic field generated in the Tampere disk due to the
horizontal time varying magnetic field used to rotate the disk, and does this
result in a time varying gravitoelectric field in the disk, and possibly also in
the space surrounding the disk, and could this result in exclusion of the
earth's primary background gravitoelectric field as claimed by Henry Wallace?
Many of the ideas in this article have been developed in personal discussions
with Kedrick Brown (http://home.att.net/~kfbrown/index.html). I would also like
to thank Ron Kita for his kind support and useful background information about
1. US Patent No 3626605, Method and Apparatus for Generating a Secondary
Gravitational Force Field, Henry Wm Wallace, Ardmore PA, Dec 14, 1971.
Wallace's first patent. The gravitomagnetic field is named the kinemassic field.
The patent describes the embodiment of his experiment. An additional embodiment
of the invention (Figures 7, 7A, and 7B) describes how a time varying
gravitomagnetic field can be used to shield the primary background
gravitoelectric field. Available on the net.
2. US Patent No 3626606, Method and Apparatus for Generating a Dynamic
Force Field, Henry Wm Wallace, Ardmore PA, Dec 14, 1971.
Wallace's second patent provides a variation of his experiment. A type III-V
semiconductor material (Indium Arsenide), of which both materials have unpaired
nuclear spin, is used as an electronic detector for the gravitomagnetic field.
The experiment demonstrates that the material in his gravitomagnetic field
circuit has hysterisis and remanence effects analogous to magnetic materials.
Available on the net. http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/weird/wallc/
3. US Patent No 3823570, Heat Pump, Henry Wm Wallace, 60 Oxford Drive,
Freeport NY, July 16, 1974
Wallaces third patent provides an additional variation of his experiment.
Wallace demonstrates that by aligning the nuclear spin of materials having an
odd number of nucleons, order is created in the material, resulting in a change
in specific heat.
4. New Scientist, 14 February 1980, Patents Review
This article is one of the only references to Wallace's work anywhere in the
literature. The article provides a brief summary of his invention and ends with
this intriguing paragraph. "Although the Wallace patents were initially ignored
as cranky, observers believe that his invention is now under serious but secret
investigation by the military authorities in the US. The military may now regret
that the patents have already been granted and so are available for anyone to
5. Electric Propulsion Study, Dennis L. Cravens, Science Applications
International Corp, August 1990, Prepared for Astronautics Laboratory, Edwards
This report provides a detailed review of a variety of 5-D theories of
gravitational and electromagnetic interactions. It also provides a summary of a
variety of possibly anomalous experiments, including experiments relating to
spin aligned nuclei. The reports contains two paragraphs about Wallace's
inventions -- partially quoted here: "The patents are written in a very
believable style which include part numbers, sources for some components, and
diagrams of data. Attempts were made to contact Wallace using patent addresses
and other sources but he was not located nor is there a trace of what became of
his work. The concept can be somewhat justified on general relativistic grounds
since rotating frames of time varying fields are expected to emit gravitational
6. On the Gravitational Effects of Rotating Masses: The Lense-Thirring
Papers Translated, B. Mashhoon, F.W. Hehl, and D.S. Theiss. General Relativity
and Gravitation, Vol 16:711-50 (1984)
A translation of the original article in German by J. Lense and H. Thirring
published in 1918. This article is the first fairly comprehensive analysis of
the necessary existence of the gravito- magnetic field. An earlier prediction of
the existence of this field was made by Heaviside in the 1880s.
7. Proceedings of the IRE Vol 49 p 892, Robert L. Forward (1961)
Forward was the first to express the gravitomagnetic field in the modern form of
Maxwells equations for gravitation. He named it the prorotational field.
8. Gravitation, C.W. Misner, K.S. Thorne, and J.A. Wheeler, Freeman
Publishing, San Francisco (1973).
MTW is the bible of gravitational theorists. Among many other theories
presented, gravitational field equations are derived from general relativity in
a form similar to Maxwells equations.
9. Laboratory Experiments to Test Relativistic Gravity, Vladimir B.
Braginsky, Carlton M. Caves, and Kip S. Thorne, Physical Review D, Vol 15 No 8
p2047, April 15 1977
Gravitational field equations are derived from General Relativity in a form
similar to Maxwells equations. The gravitomagnetic field is called magnetic-type
gravity. A variety of experiments are proposed and analyzed for detecting the
10. Foucault Pendulum at the South Pole: Proposal for an Experiment to
Detect the Earth's General Relativistic Gravitomagnetic Field, Vladimir
Braginsky, Aleksander Polnarev, and Kip Thorne, Physical Review Letters, Vol 53
No 9 p863, August 1984
Analyses an experiment for detecting the earth's gravitomagnetic field. Possibly
the first authors to use the terms gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric.
11. On Relativistic Gravitation, D. Bedford and P. Krumm, American Journal
of Physics, Vol 53 No 9, September 1985
The necessary existence of the gravitomagnetic field is derived from arguments
based on apecial relativity. The field is referred to as the gravitational
analog of the magnetic field.
12. The Gravitational Poynting Vector and Energy Transfer, Peter Krumm
and Donald Bedford, American Journal of Physics, Vol 55 No 4 p362, April 1987
Establishes the necessary existence of the gravitomagnetic field based on
arguments from special relativity and energy conservation in mass flow. Derives
the gravitational Poynting vector. Names the two types of gravitational fields
as gravinetic and gravistatic.
13. Gravitomagnetism in Special Relativity, American Journal of Physics
Vol 56 No 6 p523, June 1988
Predicts the existence of the gravitomagnetic field using special relativity and
time dilation. Names the fields gravielectric and gravimagnetic.
14. Detection of the Gravitomagnetic Field Using an Orbiting
Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer: Theoretical Principles, Bahram Mashhoon, Ho
Jung Paik, and Clifford Will, Physical Review D, Vol 39 No 10 p2825, May 1989.
Provides a summary analysis of Maxwells equations for gravitation, and an in-
depth analysis of the Gravity Probe-B orbital gyroscope experiment for detecting
the earth's gravitomagnetic field.
15. Analogy Between General Relativity and Electromagnetism for Slowly
Moving Particles in Weak Gravitational Fields, Edward G. Harris, American
Journal of Physics, Vol 59 No 5, May 1991
Derives Maxwells equations for gravitation from GR in the case of non-
relativistic velocities and relatively weak field strengths. A somewhat more
direct method of derivation is used compared with the PPN formulation used by
Braginsky, et al.
16. Gravitation and Inertia, Ignazio Ciufolini and John Wheeler, Princeton
Series in Physics, Princeton University Press (1995), Chapter 6 -- The
Gravitomagnetic Field and its Measurement.
Derives the electromagnetic analog of the gravitational field equations, and
provides in-depth analysis of experiments for detecting the gravitomagnetic
17. Causality, Electromagnetic Induction, and Gravitation. Oleg Jefimenko,
Electret Scientific Publishing, Star City WV (1992).
Jefimenko derives the electromagnetic field equations based on retarded sources,
(charges, moving charges, and accelerating charges). He applies similar
arguments to the gravitational field equations. If gravitational energy
propagates at any finite speed, the gravito- magnetic field must exist. Maxwells
equations for gravitation are presented. He also presents an unusual
configuration of mass which is predicted to provide an antigravity effect.
18. Physics Review Letters, Vol 16 p1902, B.S. Dewitt (1966)
I don't have this paper, and can not provide a summary. Dewitt was the first to
analyze fluxoid quantization in a superconductor in the presence of a time
varying magnetic-type gravitational field.
19. The London Equations for Superconductors in a Gravitational Field,
D.K. Ross, Journal of Physics A, Vol 16 p1331. (1983)
Maxwells equations for gravitation are presented in vector form. Ross uses the
name coined by Forward for the gravitomagnetic field -- the prorotational field.
Fluxoid quantization is analyzed in the presence of a varying gravitomagnetic
field. Ross establishes that the momentum of a charged particle in an
electromagnetic and gravitational field is given (in MKS units) by: p = mv +qA +
mV, where V is the gravito- magnetic vector potential, and A is the magnetic
vector potential. The resulting modified London equations are presented in
20. Effects of a Gravitomagnetic Field on Pure Superconductors, Ning Li
and Douglas Torr, Physical Review D, Vol 43 No2 p457, January 1991
Li and Torr present Maxwells equations for gravitation using MKS units. The
equations are given in a form where the gravitomagnetic permeability of a
superconductor material is presumed to be different than the permeability of
free space. Vector equations for the gravitational potentials are also
presented. The canonical momentum is derived (same finding as Ross paper). It is
established that an electrical current also results in a mass current, and an
inter- relationship is derived between the magnetic field and gravitomagnetic
field in a superconductor. It is established that the magnetic flux in a
superconductor is a function of the gravitomagnetic permeability, and vice
versa, resulting in a more rigorous form of the Meissner equation and the London
theory. It is shown that the gravitomagnetic field must have a relatively large
size in a superconductor, and is on the order of 10E11 times larger than the
21. Gravitational Effects on the Magnetic Attenuation of Superconductors,
Ning Li and Douglas Torr, Physical Review B, Vol 64 No 9 p5489. September 1992.
Li and Torr elaborate on their theory of the interrelationship of the
gravitomagnetic field and the magnetic field in superconductors. It is
established that the gravitomagnetic field must be sourced by spin alignment of
the lattice ions. The velocity of a gravitational wave in a superconductor is
estimated to be two orders of magnitude slower than the vacuum velocity,
resulting in an estimate of relative gravitational permeability of a
superconductor material which is as much as four magnitudes greater than free
22. Gravitoelectric-Electric Coupling Via Superconductivity, Douglas Torr
and Ning Li, Foundations of Physics Letters, Vol 6 No 4 p371. (1993)
Torr and Li continue their analysis of gravitational effects in superconductors.
Abstract: "Recently we demonstrated theoretically that the carriers of quantized
angular momentum are not the Cooper pairs but the latice ions, which must
execute coherent localized motion consistent with the phenomenon of
superconductivity. We demonstrate here that in the presence of an external
magnetic field, the free superelectron and bound ion currents largely cancel
providing a self-consistent microscopic and macroscopic interpretation of near-
zero magnetic permeability inside superconductors. The neutral mass currents,
however, do not cancel, because of the monopolar gravitational charge. It is
shown the coherent alignment of lattice ion spins will generate a detectable
gravitomagnetic field, and in the presence of a time-dependent applied magnetic
vector potential field, a detectable gravitoelectric field."
23. Proposal for the Experimental Detection of Gravitomagnetism in the
Terrestrial Laboratory, Robert Becker, Paul Smith, and Heffrey Bertrand.
September 1995. Published on the net.
Becker, et al, demonstrate mathematically that a significant size
gravitomagnetic field must exist concurrently with a magnetic field in a
superconductor whenever there is flux pinning or other forms of flux trapping.
An experiment is proposed whereby a small hole is made in a superconductor, flux
is trapped in the hole, and the gravito- magnetic field is detected by measuring
counter-torque from a macroscopic cylindrical mass inserted through the hole.
24. A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x
Superconductor, E. Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, Physica C Vol 203 p441 (1992)
Podkletnov describes an experiment where a 2% reduction in weight is created in
a mass suspended over a levitated and rotating super- conductor disk. A detailed
compilation of information about this experiment is available on the net at Pete
Skegg's website. http://www.inetarena.com/~noetic/pls/gravity.html
25. Weak Gravitational Shielding Properties of Composite Bulk Yba2Cu3O7-x
Superconductor Below 70K Under EM Field, Eugene Podkletnov, LANL Physics
Preprint Server, Cond-Mat/9701074, January 1997.
Podkletnov provides greater detail about his experimental apparatus and the
construction of the superconductor disk. Available on the net.
Appendix - MKS Units for the Gravitomagnetic Field.
Gravitoelectric Charge = Kg
(in purely electrical units, Kg = (Weber/Meter)(Coul/Meter)(Sec)
Gravitoelectric Field = Meter/Sec-Squared
Gravitoelectric Flux Density = Kg/Meter-Squared
Mass Current = Kg/Sec = (Weber/Meter)(Coul/Meter)
Gravitomagnetic Dipole Moment = (Kg)(Meter-Squared)/Sec
= Angular Momentum
Gravitoelectric Dipole Moment = (Kg)(Meter) (You would need the equivalent of
negative mass to make one of these)
Gravitomagnetic Charge = (Velocity)(Meter) = Square-Meter/Sec
Gravitomagnetic Field = (Mass Current)/Meter
= Spin Density
= (Angular Momentum)/Cubic-Meter
[A spin-wave is a gravtiomagnetic wave.]
Gravitomagnetic Flux Density = (Gravitomagnetic Charge)/Meter^2
= 1/Sec = Angular Velocity
Gravitoelectric Scalar Potential = Joule/Kg
= (Gravitoelectric Field)(Meter)
Gravitomagnetic Vector Potential = (Gravitomagnetic Charge)/Meter
= Velocity = Meter/Sec
Gravitoelectric Permitivity = Gravitoelectric Flux per Gravitoelectric Field
= (Kg)(Second-Squared)/(Cubic Meter)
= 1/4(Pi)(G) = 1.1927E09 Kg-Sec^2/Meter^3
Gravitomagnetic Permeability = Gravitomagnetic Flux per Gravitomagnetic Field
Assuming Gravitational Waves Propagate at the Velocity of Light --
= 9.316E-27 Meter/Kg
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