Back to Main Links Page

Page 14 of 20
Robert Stirniman's
Antigravity Bibliography - 14
    The information on the electrogravitics reference list which is of 
    particular interest to me are the Laithwaite and Wallace references. 
    I think my work (Electrical-Dipole Theory of Gravitation) explains what 
    they were observing and why. Here are some additional references. 
    -- Ralph Sansbury

    Fischbach, Sudarsky, Szafer, Talmadge, and Aronson in 
    "Reanalysis of the Eotvos Experiment" (Phys Rev Let vol 56 p3 6/1/86)

    J.H. Pratt and G.B. Airy  1855  Phil Trans v145 

    Fredrich Zollner, Explanation of Universal Gravitation through
    the Static Action of Electricity and the General Importance 
    of Weber's Laws, 1882

    Immanuel Velikovsky, Cosmos without Gravitation, 1964

    V. A. Bailey In the May 14 , 1960 issue of Nature

    P.M.S. Blackett In the May 17, 1947 issue of Nature

    T. Gold in a later issue (April 2, 1949) of Nature

    Henry Wallace  US patent number 3 626 605

    P.S. Wesson   Phys Rev D  v23 p1730 (1981)

    Sansbury R.N.  Electrical Engineering Times (12/28/87)

    Sansbury R.N.  US patent number 4,355,195

    Sansbury R.N.  Rev. Sci. Instr. (3/85)

    Bartlett D.F.  Rev.Sci. Instr. (10/90)

    Peter Graneau, Nature v295 1982 p311

    Weiskopf M.C., Carrico, Gould, Lipworth and Stein, Physical
    Review Letters 1968, vol21 p1645

    Coles and Good, Physical Review  1946  p979

    Kaufmann W.  p502 in World of the Atom by H. Bourse and L. Motz 

    W.J. Duffin, Electricity and Magnetism  Wiley 1973

    R.A. Tricker, Early Electrodynamics  Pergamon Oxford 1965

    Paper: gr-qc/9410019
    From: Peter Marzlin 
    Date: Mon, 17 Oct 94 12:50:28 +0100
    Karl-Peter Marzlin, 10 pages, LaTeX
      The dipole coupling term between a system of N particles with total
      charge zero and the electromagnetic field is derived in the presence
      of a weak gravitational field. It is shown that the form of the
      coupling remains the same as in flat space-time if it is written
      with respect to the proper time of the observer and to the
      measurable field components. Some remarks concerning the connection
      between the minimal and the dipole coupling are given.
    The level of difficulty in the above paper is well beyond my grasp. But
    what is clear is that it presents an analysis which strongly suggests that 
    the textbook wavefunctions for electrons within atomic matter can be best 
    described by the dipole coupling rather than the coulomb gauge. The paper 
    also relates the dipole coupling to a weak gravitational field. The last 
    paragraph of the paper provides substance to the idea that gravity is 
    at least in part, an electric dipole phenomena. Here is the last paragraph:

     "It is interesting to make a comparison of the present results with 
      the well known formal equivalence between the Maxwell field in curved
      space and in a dielectric medium (23). In this approach one defines a 
      formal dielectric displacement vector to describe the influence of 
      gravity on the Maxwell field. In the absence of particles, i.e. for 
      vanishing polarisation P, the formal electric displacement agrees with 
      the vector delta defined above. Also the coupling of the Poynting 
      vector to the rotation occurs in the energy of the formal Maxwell field."

    The paper referenced (23) is:

     A.M. Volkov, A.A. Izmest'ev, and G.V. Skrotskii, 
     Soviet Physics JETP 32, page 686, (1971)

    Note: There are a variety of other theories and experiments which
    attempt to show that a static gravitational field is identical
    to that which results from electric dipole moments -- a polarisation 
    of the vacuum. And conversely, it is well know that if you accelerate 
    a dielectric material, or in "equivalence" subject a dielectric 
    material to a gravitational field or other mechanical force -- an 
    electric field due to dipole moment (polarisation P) will be generated 
    within the material. This effect is especially prevalent in structured 
    crystal dielectrics (piezoelectric materials), which are used as 
    transducers in accelerometer sensors. You can also find piezoelectric 
    material, and conversion of mechanical force to a high voltage electric 
    field, in push-button spark igniters used on gas grills and cigarette 

    Here's a thought. To enlighten those folks who continue to 
    stubbornly try to debunk the evident relationship between 
    gravitation and electromagnetics -- insert one of these spark 
    igniters in a neuro-sensitive body cavity, and click it as 
    many times as necessary. 

    One issue with the electrostatic dipole hypothesis is that
    once the magnetic effects of spin etc have been considered there
    is no evidence of such dipoles inside atomic nuclei and
    electrons. However if magnetic properties of nuclei and electrons
    can be represented in terms of electrostatic dipoles as recent
    experiments and theoretical discussion seem to indicate  then
    this objection is avoided. The dipole can be produced by a
    negatively oriented particle orbiting a positive central
    particle so that the combination has a net positve charge (see
    Rev Sci Instr  Mar 1985  and Geomagnetism: Gravity Measured by
    Magnetic Materials,  ICP Press, Box 492 NY NY 10185  $25US 1994
    by R Sansbury) An added benefit: the observed quadrapole in
    nuclei and electrons makes more sense in a physically real
    Taylor expansion by the inclusion of an observed dipole term as
    well; that is the dipole term is not observed because its
    effects are wrongly attributed to another cause, magnetism; thus
    magnetism is properly regarded as a derived  apparently separate
    force like the Coriolis sideways force  on bodies moved radially
    on a rotating platform.
    -- Ralph Sansbury

    About electric dipole precession. The article "Electricity" in Britannica
    includes a resonance equation for dipole precession in dielectrics. It was 
    identical in form to the one used in magnetic resonance, except for the 
    obvious differences in units. Dielectric precession (resonance) frequencies
    were in the optical range.
    Brown didn't use resonance; but he did use a steady frequency. His
    frequency, too, would damp out if it were discontinued. Greater results
    than Brown's could probably be achieved with lasers. But I doubt you'll
    find a better description of dielectric dipole resonance. The Britannica 
    article gives the mathematics.
    van der Waals force (J.D. van der Waals) --
      Forces responsible for the non-ideal behavior of gases, and for
      the lattice energy of molecular crystals. There are three
      causes: dipole-dipole interaction; dipole-induced dipole
      moments; and dispersion forces arising because of small
      instantaneous dipoles in atoms.

     "The Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron", Bernreuther & Suzuki,
      Reviews of Modern Physics, April 1991 vol 63 no 2
       -- An electron or any other elementary particle can possess an
          electric moment (EDM) only by virtue of an interaction that
          violates parity and time-reversal invariance. The question
          of whether an electron EDM exists is thus related directly
          to the unsolved problem of CP violation. According to the
          standard model, in which CP violation is accounted for in
          terms of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, the electron EDM is
          predicted to be far too small to be observed experimentally.
          However, a number of alternative teoretical models of CP
          violation predict larger values of the electron EDM. These
          models are of special interest now, when experimental limits
          on the electron EDM are improving substantially.

      "The Electron Electric Dipole Moment for a CP-violating Neutral
       Higgs Sector", J.F. Gunion, Physics Letters: Part 8, Nov 8 1990

      "New Experimental Limit on the Electron Electric Dipole Moment",
       Abdullah & Commins, Physical Review Letters, Nov 5 1990

      "The Standard Model Prediction for the Electric Dipole Moment of
       the Electron", F. Hoogeveen, Nuclear Physics B, Sep 10 1990

      "Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron and the Neutron", S.M Barr,
       Physical Review Letters, July 2 1990, Vol 65 No 1

      "Effective Hamiltonian for the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron",
       Boyd, Gupta & Trivedi, Physics Letters: Part 8, May 24 1990

      "A search for the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron", K.F. Smith,
       Physics Letters: Part 8, Jan 4 1990, Vol 234 No 1/2

      "Interpretation of the Neutron Electric Dipole Moment: Possible
       Relationship to Epsilon", Booth, Briere & Sachs, Physical Review D
       Jan 1 1990, Vol 41 No 1

      "Inclusion of the Toroidal-Moment Contribution in the Probability
       of the Electric Dipole Transition", R.G. Nazmitidinov, Soviet
       Journal of Nuclear Physics, Sep 1 1990, Vol 53 No 2

    But what is the thing in atomic nuclei that collectively
    produces the gravitational field of the Earth etc. and which
    causes individual nuclei to react in the prescribed manner? 
    The hypothesis proposed is that atomic nuclei contain small
    electrostatic dipoles (10^-37C.-m.) with radial and longitudinal
    components transverse to the west to east spinning direction of
    the Earth etc. Such dipoles explain the nuclear magnetic moment 
    and electrostatic quadrapole moment inferred from the hyperfine 
    spectra emitted by some excited atoms and the deflection of molecules 
    such as orthohydrogen in a magnetic field (but not parahydrogen 
    because the magnetic moments are anti parallel in pairs and cancel)

    The Cavendish measurement of the horizontal gravitational
    force between two lead spheres instead of being attributed to
    the small masses of each can be attributed to the small
    horizontal component of the radial force, directed to the center
    of the Earth, due to the mass of the Earth on each of the small
    masses. That is gravity is not a property of mass per se but
    only of spinning mass.

    The atomic nuclei of all elements, except iron, cobalt, and
    nickel primarily, tend to line up in the direction of the
    surrounding atomic nuclei when the bulk object of which they are
    a part is moved but in the case of the magnetic elements the
    bulk material must also move to complete the required alignment,
    hence the north south and downward movement of a magnetized
    steel compass needle. Hence the Wilson-Blackett proportionality
    between the angular momentum of planets, stars etc and their
    magnetic moment where the constant of proportionality is the
    square root of the gravitational constant divided by the speed
    of light. For more information see Science News Aug 6 '94 p82.
    - Ralph Sansbury

    Edward Teller, "Electromagnetism and Gravitation", Proceeds of the
    National Academy of Science, Vol 74 No 4, Pages 2664-2666. 

    In this paper Dr Teller suggests some clues about the coupling
    between electromagnetism and gravitation. In the first part of his
    paper Teller describes how an electric field due to polarization
    can be induced in a dielectric material which is subject to angular
    or linear acceleration, or if subject to a gravitational field. In 
    the second part of the paper Teller describes, using purely dimenensional 
    analysis, how a magnetic field might be produced by a spinning mass. 
    He also comments that the magnitude of this magnetic field might be 
    exceedingly small, and notes that a "numerical" factor could exist 
    which might act to increase the magnitude of the field.

    (Note: It is speculated by others that alignment of microscopic 
     particles with the macroscopic spin axis of the earth, could result 
     in a large "numerical" factor. Fact is, the earth does have a fairly 
     large measurable magnetic field, about which there are a variety of 
     theories as to the origin.)

    Paper: hep-th/9506049
    From: HORIE@dipmza.physik.Uni-Mainz.DE
    Date: Thu, 08 Jun 1995 11:23:23 +0100
      Title: New Insight into the Relation between Torsion and Electromagnetism
      Author: Kenichi Horie (Mainz Univ.)
      Report-no: MZ/TH 95-16
         In several unified field theories the torsion trace is set equal to
         the electromagnetic potential. Using fibre bundle techniques we show
         that this is no leading principle but a formal consequence of
         another geometric relation between space-time and electromagentism.

    From: HORIE@VIPMZw.physik.Uni-Mainz.DE
    Date: Sat, 03 Sep 1994 10:27:48 +0100
      A complete geometric unification of gravity and electromagnetism is
      proposed by considering two aspects of torsion: its relation to spin
      established in Einstein--Cartan theory and the possible
      interpretation of the torsion trace as the electromagnetic
      potential. Starting with a Lagrangian built of Dirac spinors,
      orthonormal tetrads, and a complex rather than a real linear
      connection we define an extended spinor derivative by which we
      obtain not only a very natural unification, but can also fully
      clarify the nontrivial underlying fibre bundle structure. Thereby a
      new type of contact interaction between spinors emerges, which
      differs from the usual one in Einstein--Cartan theory. The splitting
      of the linear connection into a metric and an electromagnetic part
      together with a characteristic length scale in the theory strongly
      suggest that gravity and electromagnetism have the same geometrical

    "Gauge Invariant Electromagnetic Coupling with Torsion Potential", Richard
     T. Hammond, General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol 23 No 11 1991
      Electromagnetism is coupled to torsion in a gauge invariant manner
      by relaxing minimal coupling and introducting into the Lagrangian a
      term bilinear the electromagnetic field tensor and its torsion potential.
      The resulting coupling between electromagnetism and torsion is examined
      and a solution corresponding to traveling coupled waves is given. Since
      torsion is usually regarded as resuting from the spin of a body, this
      might establish a classical relationship between charge and spin. The
      results suggest that the effect should be looked for in high intensity 
      electric fields of low frequency. 

    "Detecting Torsion from Massive Electrodynamics", L.C. Garcia de Andrade,
     and M. Lopes, General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol 25 No 11  1993
      A new method of detecting torsion in the case of massive electrodynamics
      is proposed. Several authors have proposed methods for the detection of
      torsion in theories of the Einstein-Cartan type, and also in theories
      where the torsion field propogates. These theories are based on the
      studies of Dirac test particles, which have spin like the electron,
      and the gyroscope-like precession of these atomic particles. The 
      interaction energy between the torsion vector Q, and an electric dipole p,
      is given by (p dot Q).  

    AUTHOR(s):       de Andrade, L.C. Garcia  
    TITLE(s):        Electron gyroscopes to test torsion gravity?  
               In:   Il nuovo cimento delle societa italiana di fisic  
                     OCT 01 1994 v 109 n 10  Page:   1123  

    AUTHOR:     De Sabbata, Venzo.
    TITLE:      Spin and Torsion in Gravitation  
                    by Venzo de Sabbata, and C. Sivaram.
    PUBL.:      Singapore ; River Edge, NJ : World Scientific,
    FORMAT:     xii, 313 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
    DATE:       1994                                                      
    SUBJECTS:   Torsion, Gravitation
    AUTHOR:     De Sabbata, Venzo. 
    TITLE:      Introduction to Gravitation 
                by Venzo de Sabbata and Maurizio Gasperini.
    PUBL.:      Singapore ; Philadelphia : World Scientific,
    FORMAT:     ix, 346 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
    DATE:       1985
    SUBJECTS:   General relativity, Torsion, Gravitation
    AUTHOR:     NATO Advanced Study Institute on Cosmology and Gravitation
                (1979:  Bologna, Italy)
    TITLE:      Cosmology and Gravitation: Spin, Torsion, Rotation, and
                Edited by Peter G. Bergmann and Venzo De Sabbata.    
    PUBL.:      New York : Plenum Press : NATO Scientific Affairs Division,
    FORMAT:     ix, 510 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
    DATE:       1980
    SERIES:     NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series v 58 Series B Physics 

    CONFERENCE :International Conference on Magnetic and Electric Resonance
                and Relaxation (1962: Eindhoven)
         TITLE :Magnetic and electric resonance and relaxation; proceedings of
                the XIth Colloque Ampere, Eindhoven, July 2-7, 1962.
     PUBLISHED :Amsterdam, New York, North-Holland Pub. Co.; Interscience
                Publishers, 1963.
          DESC :xi,789p. illus.,diagrs.,tables. 24cm.

    The Lorentz-Dirac equation is a purely classical expression for the
    electromagnetic force on a point charge, including the self-force from
    the particle's own radiation.  It's a strange equation, with solutions
    that are manifestly unphysical under certain circumstances.  If you
    want to know more about it, you might want to look at:

     S. Parrott, Relativistic Electrodynamics and Differential Geometry,
     Springer-Verlag, 1987.

    PHYS. REV. D50 (1994 3867) (Sean Carroll)
    Tue, 29 Mar 1994 19:57:32 -0500
    (PLAIN TEX), MIT-CTP #2291. 
      We discuss the possibility of constraining theories of gravity in
      which the connection is a fundamental variable by searching for
      observational consequences of the torsion degrees of freedom. In a
      wide class of models, the only modes of the torsion tensor which
      interact with matter are either a massive scalar or a massive spin-1
      boson. Focusing on the scalar version, we study constraints on the
      two-dimensional parameter space characterizing the theory. For
      reasonable choices of these parameters the torsion decays quickly
      into matter fields, and no long-range fields are generated which
      could be discovered by ground-based or astrophysical experiments.

    Date: Sun, 02 May 93 12:55:30 BCN
      Invariant connections with torsion on simple group manifolds S are
      studied and an explicit formula describing them is presented. This
      result is used for the dimensional reduction in a theory of
      multidimensional gravity with curvature squared terms on M^{4} times S. 
      We calculate the potential of scalar fields, emerging from extra 
      components of the metric and torsion, and analyze the role of the 
      torsion for the stability of spontaneous compactification. 

    Subject: Antigravity in Jane's
    From: "Terry Colvin" 

    "All those interested in advanced propulsion concepts should check out
    Jane's Defence Weekly, 10 June 1995. An article discusses anti-gravity
    schemes and shows drawings of sauceroid vehicles from British Aerospace
    among others. Area 51 is mentioned, as well as an unclassified paper done
    for the USAF by Science Applications International Corp. in 1990. The
    subject was [Electric Propulsion], a[n] euphemism for anti-gravity
    according to Jane's. Michael Flora"

    Anti-Gravity for Real -- Discussed in Jane's Defence Weekly

    Jane's Defence Weekly is a most respected journal in the
    defense industry. Jane's has often been the first to break 
    the news about secret development of radically new technologies
    and equipment.

    Jane's Defence Weekly of 10 June 1995, has an article about
    advanced aerospace technologies, written by Nick Cook. The idea
    of anti-gravity is taken seriously and is auspicously present 
    throughout the article -- including three artist renditions of 
    future anti-gravity based craft. 

    The Jane's article commences with a mention of anti-gravity 
    technology, and also ends with a few paragraphs discussing 
    anti-gravity. In between is the bulk of the article, which 
    consists of discussion of "conventional" subjects, including: 
    Hypersonics, Gas Turbine Inrements, The Super Cockpit, and Stealth.  

    At the start of the Jane's article there is some information
    from the Gravity Rand Report on Electrogravitics which was done 
    for the USAF in 1956, and was recently declassified. Here's
    an excerpt from the beginning of the Jane's article.

       Take this example from a specialist US aviation magazine in
       1956. "We're already working with equipment to cancel out 
       gravity," Lawrence D Bell, founder of the company that bears 
       his name was quoted as saying. Bell, apparently, was not the 
       only one working in this field. Others said to be seeking to 
       master this arcane 'science' included the Glenn L Martin 
       Company, Convair, Lear, and Sperry Gyroscope. Within a few 
       years we were assured, aircraft, cars, submarines and power
       stations would all be driven by this radical new propulsion
       technology. Sadly it was not to be.

    Here's the ending section of the Jane's article.

       BEYOND 2001
       Groom Lake Nevada is the epicentre of classified USAF research
       into Stealth and other exotic aerospace technologies. Several
       years after the collapse of the Soviet threat, activity and
       investment at this remote, highly secret air base (so secret
       its prescence is, as yet, unacknowledged by the US government)
       is still on the increase. While research into less sensitive 
       technologies such two-dimensional thrust-vectoring and advanced
       short take-off and vertical landing (ASTOVL) are pursued in the
       open at nearby Edwards AFB in California, Groom Lake is set to 
       hang onto its secrets. The USAF's recent confiscation of 1600
       acres of public land bordering the facility is consistent with
       the Pentagon's desire to maintain its lead in quantum leap
       technologies -- some of which, according to well qualified
       observers in and around the Nevada area, defy current thinking
       into the predicted direction of aerospace engineering.

       That aerospace ocmpanies continue to look at highly radical
       alternative air vehicle concepts is evidence of the ongoing 
       quest for breakthrough designs. Glimpses into this world are
       rare, but provide some insight into likely 21st century research
       activity. The 1990 unclassified 'Electric Propulsion Study'
       (a quest for antigravity propulsion system by another name) 
       conducted by the USA's Science Application International Corp
       (SAIC) on behalf of USAF's then Astronautics Laboratory at
       Edwards AFB shows that USAF visionaries are still being given
       free reign. Until recently BAe (British Aerospace) also provided
       internal resources for its own anti-gravity studies and even
       went so far as to outline this thinking with artists' concepts --
       a case of Lawrence Bell's vision perhaps being not so wide of
       the mark after all. 

       Before he died, Ben Rich, who headed Lockheed's Skunk Works from
       1975-1991, was quoted as saying: "We have some new things. We are
       not stagnating. What we are doing is updating ourselves, without
       advertising. There are some new programmes, and there are certain
       things -- some of them 20 to 30 years old -- that are still
       breakthroughs and appropriate to keep quiet about. Other people
       don't have them yet.

       Thirty years from now, we may still not know the half of what is
       currently being tested in and around Groom Lake.  

    Copyright 1995, Jane's Defence Weekly, All rights reserved.

    /* The above information is transmitted under the "Fair Use" rulings 
       of the 1976 Copyright Act for NON-profit academic and general 
       information purposes. */
                        ---End of Page 14---
    Back to Main Links Page                    To Stirniman AG Bibliography - Page 15