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Theories & Concepts-2
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***Web-Site Up-Dated July, 2004***
- Therories and Concepts -
Ernst Mach (1838-1916)
- Force Principles -
A section of one of Ernst Mach's Principles
states: Inertial forces originate in the acceleration
of a particle relative to distant matter. Mach
apparently had in mind a type of instantaneous action at a distance
as the means by which very distant matter would produce this
force. It would be more in keeping with modern notions
of the nature of forces if the inertial force could some day be
traced to a purely local interaction with the particles of a
quanitized field. This field would be assumed to have
its source in all the matter of the Universe.
A particle at rest at the origin of a coordinate system in which
distant galaxies are moving uniformly away from the origin, would
feel no force by reason of symmetry. However, an
acceleration destroys this symmetry, and it would be
expected that this distant accelerated matter would be a source
of a gravitational field.
This Mach's Principle views inertia as a
dynamic gravitational effect due to the interaction of all the
masses constituting the Universe. Hence, if a pail
containing rotating water, (and, with it, the Earth and the
apparently stationary ensemble of stars), is assumed to carry with
it the reference system of coordinates, then the centrifugal force
acting on the spinning body of water is attributed to 'outside'
Mach concluded that the outside forces might
be called either inertial or dynamically gravitational, the
latter presumed to be due to an action of the masses of the Universe
with respect to which the body of water is spinning.
On the other hand, if the reference system of coordinates is assumed
to be fixed onto the water, (spinning with it), then the body of
water would have to be viewed as standing still, - but the mass of
the pail, the contained Earth and stars of the Universe, would spin
about the now relatively stationary body of water - and their
dynamically gravitational pull would result in the formation of the
same cocave hollow surface which, under the previous assumption,
resulted from the presumedly inertial centrifugal action.
Theories Utilizing Ether
Dayton C. Miller, from 1922 to 1926, redid
the Michelson-Morley Ether-Drift experiment, concluding that 'there
is a positive, systematic ether-drift effect, corresponding to a
constant relative motion of the Earth and the ether, which at
Mt. Wilson Observatory has an apparent velocity of 10 kilometers
The sole reason for the speed of light
entering into the equation of velocities of two physical bodies
is the requirement by the medium within which they move.
This is the ether under the disguise of the velocity
Einstein's relativistic and Gerber's
nonrelativistic theories furnish identical results.
The coincidental results are simply due to the fact that both
theories are based on the assumption of an ether -
which is contained in relativity implicitly, and
stated by Gerber explicitly.
It would seem that ether gradients in some
such form as a variable ether pressure and density distribution
are much more likely to exist in view of the existing bodies
ranging in size from nuclei to galaxies, all of which can be
viewed as singularities in the space structure.
The origin of matter can, therefore, be investigated
from the standpoint of localized ether stresses, i.e., ultimate
ether quanta which enter into mutual relationships resulting
eventually in such gigantic superstructures as quarks, electrons,
protons, and ultimately galaxies.
Possible structure of ether:
The transmission of light through, for example, a
vacuum, shows that the ether must possess a structure exhibiting
properties akin to rigidity and inertia.
This rigidity may be understood hydrodynamically as a vortex
circulation having a velocity of the same order as that of the
transversal waves which the medium transmits.
The inertia perceived in matter may then
be an effect of the motion of electrons, atoms, molecules, and
other microscopic 'bodies' through ether.
The granular structure of ether would have to
be of a linear dimension of the order of 10-30 or
But how the ether is tied into knots, we call quarks or electrons,
or other particles, remains to be discovered.
The assumption that the formation and the existence of an electron
or other particle is created with a radial tension all around it,
can be construed as accounting for gravitational and
some or all other universal forces.
In the case of galactic and extragalactic
distances, Newton's Gravitational Laws break down if the vast
spacial expanses contain masses of any finite density.
If, however, a kind of gravitational
absorption in the universal medium (ether) as well as in the
interposed celestial bodies takes place, then the
difficulties in generalization of the gravitational laws disappear
if the Newton's equation is modified to read:
F = G M m e-ar / r2
where 'a' is the coefficient of gravitational absorption.
In this case, the motion of the bodies remains unaffected by very
distant masses, due to the complete damping of gravitational waves
by means of energy absorption by the intermediate media.
In other words, if gravitational absorption exists, island
universes should exist - a conclusion borne out by current
An experiment by Majorana gave a value of
a = 2.8 x 10-12 per unit of mass acted upon, per unit
of density, and per unit of thickness of the shielding mass.
This experimental data was obtained by surrounding a
measured mass with a sphere containing 10 tons of mercury, and
measuring the apparent loss of weight of the experimental mass.
All of the foregoing considerations could
now be used for reviewing Arthur Korn's theory of
gravitation based on the hypothesis of universal vibrations -- a
concept which ascribes to matter a property of atomic interaction
due to very tiny subnuclear pulsations.
On the basis of the concept of universal
vibrations, as well as Bjerknes' experiments, it is possible --
according to Korn to establish a theory of gravitation by making
use of hydrodynamic analogy. To this end, Korn
considers the results obtained by Bjerknes' experiments with
pulsating spheres submerged in water. Two such
pulsating spheres attract each other according to an equation
analogous to Newton's Law of Gravitation - providing that the
phases of the pulsations are the same.
(Much More To Come)
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