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*AntiGravity Propulsion*
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AntiGravity Propulsion
- Therories and Concepts -

Ernst Mach (1838-1916)
- Force Principles -

A section of one of Ernst Mach's Principles states:   Inertial forces originate in the acceleration of a particle relative to distant matter.    Mach apparently had in mind a type of instantaneous action at a distance as the means by which very distant matter would produce this force.    It would be more in keeping with modern notions of the nature of forces if the inertial force could some day be traced to a purely local interaction with the particles of a quanitized field.    This field would be assumed to have its source in all the matter of the Universe.    A particle at rest at the origin of a coordinate system in which distant galaxies are moving uniformly away from the origin, would feel no force by reason of symmetry.    However, an acceleration destroys this symmetry,   and it would be expected that this distant accelerated matter would be a source of a gravitational field.

This Mach's Principle views inertia as a dynamic gravitational effect due to the interaction of all the masses constituting the Universe.    Hence, if a pail containing rotating water, (and, with it, the Earth and the apparently stationary ensemble of stars), is assumed to carry with it the reference system of coordinates, then the centrifugal force acting on the spinning body of water is attributed to 'outside' forces.

Mach concluded that the outside forces might be called either inertial or dynamically gravitational,   the latter presumed to be due to an action of the masses of the Universe with respect to which the body of water is spinning.    On the other hand, if the reference system of coordinates is assumed to be fixed onto the water, (spinning with it), then the body of water would have to be viewed as standing still, - but the mass of the pail, the contained Earth and stars of the Universe, would spin about the now relatively stationary body of water - and their dynamically gravitational pull would result in the formation of the same cocave hollow surface which, under the previous assumption, resulted from the presumedly inertial centrifugal action.

Theories Utilizing Ether

Dayton C. Miller, from 1922 to 1926, redid the Michelson-Morley Ether-Drift experiment, concluding that 'there is a positive, systematic ether-drift effect, corresponding to a constant relative motion of the Earth and the ether, which at Mt. Wilson Observatory has an apparent velocity of 10 kilometers per second'.

The sole reason for the speed of light entering into the equation of velocities of two physical bodies is the requirement by the medium within which they move.
This is the ether under the disguise of the velocity of light.

Einstein's relativistic and Gerber's nonrelativistic theories furnish identical results.    The coincidental results are simply due to the fact that both theories are based on the assumption of an ether  -   which is contained in relativity implicitly, and stated by Gerber explicitly.

It would seem that ether gradients in some such form as a variable ether pressure and density distribution are much more likely to exist in view of the existing bodies ranging in size from nuclei to galaxies, all of which can be viewed as singularities in the space structure.     The origin of matter can, therefore, be investigated from the standpoint of localized ether stresses, i.e., ultimate ether quanta which enter into mutual relationships resulting eventually in such gigantic superstructures as quarks, electrons, protons, and ultimately galaxies.

Possible structure of ether:    The transmission of light through, for example, a vacuum, shows that the ether must possess a structure exhibiting properties akin to rigidity and inertia.     This rigidity may be understood hydrodynamically as a vortex circulation having a velocity of the same order as that of the transversal waves which the medium transmits.     The inertia perceived in matter may then be an effect of the motion of electrons, atoms, molecules, and other microscopic 'bodies' through ether.

The granular structure of ether would have to be of a linear dimension of the order of 10-30 or 10-33 centimeters.     But how the ether is tied into knots, we call quarks or electrons, or other particles, remains to be discovered.     The assumption that the formation and the existence of an electron or other particle is created with a radial tension all around it,   can be construed as accounting for gravitational and some or all other universal forces.

In the case of galactic and extragalactic distances, Newton's Gravitational Laws break down if the vast spacial expanses contain masses of any finite density.     If, however, a kind of gravitational absorption in the universal medium (ether) as well as in the interposed celestial bodies takes place,    then the difficulties in generalization of the gravitational laws disappear if the Newton's equation is modified to read:
```F = G M m e-ar / r2
```
where 'a' is the coefficient of gravitational absorption.
In this case, the motion of the bodies remains unaffected by very distant masses, due to the complete damping of gravitational waves by means of energy absorption by the intermediate media.    In other words, if gravitational absorption exists,  island universes should exist - a conclusion borne out by current astronomical observations.

An experiment by Majorana gave a value of a = 2.8 x 10-12 per unit of mass acted upon, per unit of density, and per unit of thickness of the shielding mass.    This experimental data was obtained by surrounding a measured mass with a sphere containing 10 tons of mercury, and measuring the apparent loss of weight of the experimental mass.

All of the foregoing considerations could now be used for reviewing Arthur Korn's theory of gravitation based on the hypothesis of universal vibrations -- a concept which ascribes to matter a property of atomic interaction due to very tiny subnuclear pulsations.

On the basis of the concept of universal vibrations, as well as Bjerknes' experiments, it is possible -- according to Korn to establish a theory of gravitation by making use of hydrodynamic analogy.    To this end,   Korn considers the results obtained by Bjerknes' experiments with pulsating spheres submerged in water.    Two such pulsating spheres attract each other according to an equation analogous to Newton's Law of Gravitation - providing that the phases of the pulsations are the same.

(Much More To Come)

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