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Page 3 of 20
Robert Stirniman's
Antigravity Bibliography - 3
    From: "Jun Liu" 
    Date: Sun, 25 Jun 1995 03:25:05 -0400
    Potential Effect: Aharonov-Bohm Effect of Simply Connected Region
    Author: Jun Liu
    Comments: Prediction of a new effect. Numerical estimate given for
    experimental verification. The referees disagree with each other on
    the existence of this effect. 
      We study a generalization of Aharonov-Bohm effect, the potential
      effect. The discussion is focused on field-free effects in simply
      connected region, which obviously can not have any local field-flux.
      Among the published discussions about this kind of effects, it is
      generally agreed that this kind of effect does not exist due to
      gauge invariance. However, there are also opinions that this effect
      is a trivial variation of Aharonov-Bohm effect and therefore there
      is no need to check its existence. To my knowledge, it has never
      been tested. My first goal here is to supply enough theoretical
      reason to motivate the experimental test of this effect. I start
      with an intuitive derivation, then I introduce a wave-front theory
      as a theoretical consideration. Logically, the existence of
      potential effect implies the existence of the AB effect, but not
      vice versa. The purpose of this paper is to provide a physical
      connection in the opposite direction.

    From: "Jun Liu" 
    Date: Thu, 5 Oct 1995 04:30:27 -0400
    The Real Significance of the Electromagnetic Potentials
    Author(s): J`un L'iu
      The importance of the potential is revealed in a newly discovered
      effect of the potential. This paper explore the same issue
      introduced in quant-ph/9506038 from several different aspects
      including electron optics and relativity. Some people fail to
      recognize this effect due to a wrong application of gauge

    In the above two papers, Dr Liu proposes a theory of the electromagnetic 
    potential which is a radical extension of the well known Aharonov-Bohm 
    effect. In the second paper he is barely able to contain his frustration 
    about repeated publication rejections over the last four years from 
    leading physics journals. He provides a theoretical foundation for his 
    potential theory, as well as some relatively straight forward suggestions 
    for experiments which might confirm the theory. But there is an enormous 
    problem. Liu's theory violates the concept of invariance of physical 
    parameters under an electromagnetic gauge transformation. Electromagnetic 
    gauge invariance is a cornerstone in the foundation of quantum theory and 
    QED, and it is also part and parcel linked with the dogma of light speed 
    invariance. In other words, heresy. 

    The AB effect is invariant under an electromagnetic gauge transformation. 
    While a phase-shift occurs in the AB effect, it can be identified only 
    over a closed path and is impossible to identify with any specific 
    "local" region of space. Furthermore, in the AB effect, there is no 
    interaction relating to a transfer of energy or momentum. Maintaining 
    the idea of gauge invariance is a little harder to do in the Aharonov-Casher 
    effect, but it can be accomplished by "gauging away" the physical effects 
    of magnetic spin precession by using a combination of factors from the 
    classical Maxwell fields along with the electromagnetic potential. It 
    has the look of an elaborate parlor trick, but so does most of QED. 

    Liu's theory predicts that the electromagnetic potential acts like
    a kind of "refractive index" to wave propogation, and is similar in 
    some respects to what was predicted in the earlier paper on electron 
    optics by Ehrenberg and Siday in 1949. The result is that in some 
    circumstances an electromagnetic potential causes a change in wavelength, 
    and in other circumstances causes a change in phase (AB effect). An effect 
    on wavelength would be manifested as a change in the envelope of the 
    interference pattern, rather than merely a shift in the pattern. In Liu's 
    theory an exchange of energy and momentum becomes possible. His theory 
    is relatively easy to test and verify, but oddly or not, no one has yet 
    done so. Maybe because we already "know" it can't be true? 

    One interesting prediction of Liu's theory is that electromagnetic
    potential will result in time dilation. He doesn't appear to be 
    aware that there is already experimental evidence that this occurs.  
    See references to inventions and experiments by people such as Saxl, 
    Barker, and Keller, which demonstrate time dilation in an electric
    potential. Time dilation can be viewed equivalently as a shift in 
    wavelength. Liu wishes for someone to conduct an experiment to test 
    for a change in wavelength by using a quantum interferometer. A fine 
    idea. But what about those experimenters who have already measured 
    this effect with a clock? Also see a variety of references here to 
    theories and experiments which relate the scalar electric potential 
    to the gravitational field, and time dilation is a well know, and 
    experimentally verified, prediction of general relativity. 

    The Aharonov-Bohm effect has sparked a revolution in physical thought. 
    There are a variety of new ideas and experiments, such as verification 
    of Liu's theory, which could soon begin to fan it to a flame. When the 
    flame becomes sufficiently illuminating, watch the political scientists 
    begin to scramble for a comfortable seat nearer the fire. 
    -- Robert Stirniman
    Over the last five years, there have been over 300 papers published 
    about various aspects of Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects,
    and quantum interferometry. The subject relates to nearly all aspects 
    of modern physics. Here are selected examples: 

    AUTHOR(s):       Semon, Mark D. 
    TITLE(s):        The Aharonov-Bohm Effect: Still a Thought-Provoking
               In:   Foundations of physics. 
                     JUL 01 1988 v 18 n 7  Page 731 
    AUTHOR(s):       Furuya, Kazuhito 
    TITLE(s):        Transient Response of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect. 
               In:   Japanese journal of applied physics.  part 1,   
                     FEB 01 1989 v 28 n 2  Page 303 
    AUTHOR(s):       Chetouani, L.  Guechi, L.  Hammann, T.F. 
    TITLE(s):        Exact path integral solution of the coulomb plus
                       Aharonov-Bohm potential.                                   
               In:   Journal of mathematical physics. 
                     MAR 01 1989 v 30 n 3  Page 655 
    AUTHOR(s):       Lee, Patrick A. 
    TITLE(s):        Gauge field, Aharonov-Bohm Flux, and high-Tc
               In:   Physical review letters. 
                     AUG 07 1989 v 63 n 6  Page 680 
    AUTHOR(s):       Bezerra, V.B. 
    TITLE(s):        Gravitational analogs of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. 
               In:   Journal of mathematical physics. 
                     DEC 01 1989 v 30 n 12  Page 2895 
    AUTHOR(s):       Reznik, B.  Aharonov, Y. 
    TITLE(s):        Question of the nonlocality of the Aharonov-Casher effect. 
               In:   Physical review.  D,  Particles and fields. 
                     DEC 15 1989 v 40 n 12  Page 4178 
    AUTHOR(s):       Stovicek, P. 
    TITLE(s):        The Green function for the two-solenoid Aharonov-Bohm
               In:   Physics letters:  [part A] 
                     NOV 27 1989 v 142 n 1  Page 5 
    AUTHOR(s):       Ellis,  J.R. 
    TITLE(s):        Dirac magnetic monopole and the Aharonov-Bohm solenoid in
                       the Poincare gauge.                                        
               In:   Journal of physics A: Mathematical and general. 
                     JAN 07 1990 v 23 n 1  Page 65 
    AUTHOR(s):       Gerber, A.   Deutscher, G. 
    TITLE(s):        AC-to-DC conversion and Aharonov-Bohm effect in 
                     percolating superconducting films.                                     
               In:   Physical review letters. 
                     MAR 26 1990 v 64 n 13  Page 1585 
    AUTHOR(s):       Hagen, C.R. 
    TITLE(s):        Exact equivalence of spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm and
                       Aharonov-Casher effects.                                   
               In:   Physical review letters. 
                     MAY 14 1990 v 64 n 20  Page 2347 
    AUTHOR(s):       Afanase'ev, G.N. 
    TITLE(s):        Old and new problems in the theory of the Aharonov-Bohm
               In:   Soviet journal of particles and nuclei. 
                     JAN 01 1990 v 21 n 1  Page 74 
    AUTHOR(s):       Silverman, M.P. 
    TITLE(s):        Two-solenoid Aharonov-Bohm experiment with correlated
               In:   Physics letters:  [part A] 
                     AUG 13 1990 v 148 n 3/4  Page 154 
    AUTHOR(s):       Gornicki, Pawel 
    TITLE(s):        Aharonov-Bohm Effect Vacuum Polarization. 
               In:   Annals of physics. 
                     SEP 01 1990 v 202 n 2  Page 271 
    AUTHOR(s):       Gal'tsov, D.V. 
                     Voropaev, S.A. 
    TITLE(s):        Bremsstrahlung polarization in the Aharonov-Bohm effect. 
               In:   Moscow University physics bulletin. 
                     1990 v 45 n 1  Page 8 
    AUTHOR(s):       Padmanabhan, T. 
    TITLE(s):        Vacuum polarization around an Aharonov-Bohm solenoid. 
               In:   Pramana.  
                     MAR 01 1991 v 36 n 3  Page 253 
    AUTHOR(s):       Hagen, C.R. 
    TITLE(s):        Spin dependence of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect. 
               In:   International journal of modern physics A. 
                     JUL 30 1991 v 6 n 18  Page 3119 
    AUTHOR(s):       Dupuis, Nicolas   Montambaux, Gilles 
    TITLE(s):        Aharonov-Bohm flux and statistics of energy levels in
               In:   Physical review B:  Condensed matter. 
                     JUN 15 1991 v 43 n 18  Page 14390 
    AUTHOR(s):       Ortiz, M.E. 
    TITLE(s):        Gravitational anyons, Chern-Simons-Witten gravity and the
                       gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect.                        
               In:   Nuclear physics.  b. 
                     SEP 30 1991 v 363 n 1  Page 185 
    AUTHOR(s):       Bezerra, V.B. 
    TITLE(s):        Gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect in a locally flat
               In:   Classical and quantum gravity. 
                     OCT 01 1991 v 8 n 10  Page 1939 
    AUTHOR(s):       Sitenko, Y.A. 
    TITLE(s):        The Aharonov-Bohm effect and the inducing of vacuum charge
                       by a singular magnetic string.                             
               In:   Nuclear physics.  b. 
                     MAR 23 1992 v 372 n 3  Page 622 
    AUTHOR(s):       March-Russell, John   Preskill, John   Wilczek, Frank 
    TITLE(s):        Internal frame dragging and a global analog of the
                       Aharonov-Bohm effect.                                      
               In:   Physical review letters. 
                     APR 27 1992 v 68 n 17  Page 2567 
    AUTHOR(s):       Krive, I.V.   Rozhavsky, A.S. 
    TITLE(s):        Non-Traditional Aharonov-Bohm Effects in Condensed Matter. 
               In:   International journal of modern physics.  B. 
                     MAY 10 1992 v 6 n 9  Page 1255 
    AUTHOR(s):       Krive, I. V.  Zvyagin, A. A. 
    TITLE(s):        Aharonov-casher effect in half-integer spin
               In:   Modern physics letters.  B,  Condensed matter ph 
                     JUN 20 1992 v 6 n 14  Page 871 
    AUTHOR(s):       Zubkov, M.A.  Polikarpov, M.I. 
    TITLE(s):        Aharonov-Bohm effect in lattice field theory. 
               In:   JETP letters. 
                     APR 25 1993 v 57 n 8  Page 461 
    AUTHOR(s):       Duru, I. H. 
    TITLE(s):        Casimir Force Between Two Aharonov-Bohm Solenoids. 
               In:   Foundations of physics. 
                     MAY 01 1993 v 23 n 5  Page 809 
    AUTHOR(s):       Takai, Daisuke  Ohta, Kuniichi 
    TITLE(s):        Aharonov-Bohm effect in the presence of magnetic flux and
                       electrostatic potential.                                   
               In:   Physical review.  b,  condensed matter. 
                     JUL 15 1993 v 48 n 3  Page 1537 
    AUTHOR(s):       Allman, B.E.  Cimmino, A.  Klein, A.G. 
    TITLE(s):        Observation of the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect by neutron
               In:   Physical review.  A. 
                     SEP 01 1993 v 48 n 3  Page 1799 
    AUTHOR(s):       Jensen, Bjorn   Kucera, Jaromir 
    TITLE(s):        On a gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect. 
               In:   Journal of mathematical physics. 
                     NOV 01 1993 v 34 n 11  Page 4975 
    AUTHOR(s):       Maeda, J.  Shizuya, K. 
    TITLE(s):        Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects and
                       electromagnetic angular momentum.                          
               In:   Zeitschrift fur Physik C; particles and fields. 
                     1993 v 60 n 2  Page 265 
    AUTHOR(s):       Afanasiev, G.N. 
    TITLE(s):        Toroidal solenoids in an electromagnetic field and toroidal
                       Aharonov-Casher effect.                                    
               In:   Physica scripta. 
                     OCT 01 1993 v 48 n 4  Page 385 
    AUTHOR(s):       Moreau, William   Ross, Dennis K. 
    TITLE(s):        Complementary electric Aharonov-Bohm effect. 
               In:   Physical review.  A,  Atomic, molecular, and opt 
                     JUN 01 1994 v 49 n 6  Page 4348 
    AUTHOR(s):       Ho, Vu B.   Morgan, Michael J. 
    TITLE(s):        An Experiment to Test the Gravitational Aharonov-Bohm
               In:   Australian journal of physics. 
                     1994 v 47 n 3  Page:   245 
    AUTHOR(s):       Zeiske, K.  Zinner, G.  Helmcke, J. 
    TITLE(s):        Atom interferometry in a static electric field: 
                     Measurement of the Aharonov-Casher phase.                              
               In:   Applied physics.  b,  lasers and optics. 
                     FEB 01 1995 v 60 n 2/3  Page:   205 
    AUTHOR(s):       Sazonov, S.N. 
    TITLE(s):        On Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Multiconnected Superconductor. 
               In:   Acta physica Polonica,  A. 
                     DEC 01 1994 v 86 n 6  Page 987 
    AUTHOR(s):       Reznik, B. 
    TITLE(s):        Gravitational analogue of the Aharonov-Casher effect. 
               In:   Physical review  d:  particles, fields, gravitat 
                     MAR 15 1995 v 51 n 6  Page 3108 
    AUTHOR(s):       Oh, Sangchul   Ryu, Chang-Mo 
    TITLE(s):        Persistent spin currents induced by the Aharonov-Casher
                       effect in mesoscopic rings.                                
               In:   Physical review B:  Condensed matter. 
                     MAY 15 1995 v 51 n 19  Page 13441 
    AUTHOR(s):       Leadbeater, M.  Lambert, C.J. 
    TITLE(s):        Mesoscopic Superconducting Analogs of the
                       Aharonov-Bohm-Casher Effect.                               
               In:   Physical review letters. 
                     MAY 29 1995 v 74 n 22   Page 4519 
    AUTHOR(s):       Cook, Richard J.  Fearn, Heidi  Milonni, Peter W. 
    TITLE(s):        Fizeau's experiment and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. 
               In:   American journal of physics. 
                     AUG 01 1995 v 63 n 8  Page 705 
    AUTHOR(s):       Yi, J.  Jeon, G. S.  Choi, M. Y. 
    TITLE(s):        Dual Aharonov-Casher effect and persistent dipole current. 
               In:   Physical review B:  Condensed matter. 
                     SEP 15 1995 v 52 n 11  Page 7838 
    AUTHOR(s):       Audretsch, Jurgen   Jasper, Ulf   Skarzhinsky, Vladimir D. 
    TITLE(s):        Bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons in the
                       Aharonov-Bohm potential.                                   
               In:   Physical review  d:  particles, fields, gravitat 
                     FEB 15 1996 v 53 n 4  Page 2178 
    AUTHOR(s):       Skarzhinsky, Vladimir D.  Audretsch, Jurgen  Jasper, Ulf 
    TITLE(s):        Electron-positron pair production in the Aharonov-Bohm
               In:   Physical review  d:  particles, fields, gravitat 
                     FEB 15 1996 v 53 n 4  Page 2190 

     Time out for a summary. 

     . Hooper, as well as Carr, Rognerud, Jefimenko, et al, find that a
       electromagnetic effect which is not shieldable, and hence difficult 
       to distinguish from gravitation, results from equal and opposite 
       electric currents (dipole-current), and that a similar effect can
       also be generated by a moving magnet or a moving electric current.

     . Recent experiments in Tampere Finland, discover a gravitational 
       shielding effect from a levitated rotating superconductor disk. 
       This is similar in some respects to Hooper's invention, with the 
       equal-and-opposite electric current being generated in a superconductor 
       disk via the Meissner effect.
     . Sansbury, Volkov, Brown, Teller, Blackett, Zollner, et al, provide 
       theoretical arguments as well as some experimental indications that 
       equal-and-opposite electric charge (dipole-charge) is similar, or 
       equivalent, to a static gravitational field. And that alignment of 
       electric dipoles in matter and in vacuum polarization, can result in 
       a force which is not shieldable, and not easily distinguishable from 
       gravity. Conversely, it is well know that a gravitational field, an 
       acceleration, or a mechanical force, causes a dipole moment
       (polarization) to occur within a dielectric material. 

     . Wallace, Laithwaite, Barnett, et al, discover that gravitational
       and electromagnetic field effects occur due to alignment of the 
       microscopic spin of quantum particles with the angular momentum 
       spin axis of a larger macroscopic body. 

     . Aharonov and Bohm discover that an effect can occur on an electrically
       charged particle due to the magnetic vector potential, in regions of 
       space where the classic Maxwell fields vanish. Originally -- on the 
       outside of infinitely long solenoid coil (with the magnetic field  
       cancelled by equal-and-opposite currents). Others have conducted this 
       experiment using a toroidal coil coated with superconductor material 
      (generating an equal-and-opposite current) to cause the Maxwell magnetic 
       field to vanish. A similar effect, Aharonov-Casher is disovered to 
       occur due to the electric scalar potential, in regions of space where 
       the Maxwell electric field vanishes.  

     . Whittaker, and Eherenberg and Siday, have written theories which 
       are precursors to Aharonov-Bohm, suggesting that the electromagnetic 
       potential is a far richer and more fundamental thing than the 
       Maxwell fields. The classical Maxwell fields are regarded as 
       artifical abstractions. We can also note that Maxwell's theory 
       itself, was originally much richer in variables (20 equations and 
       20 unknowns), before it was simplified by Gibbs and Heaviside, 
       to the vector formlation which we know as "Maxwell's" equations. 

     . Vu Ho authors a recent paper suggesting experiments relating the 
       electromagnetic potential and the Aharonov-Bohm effect to gravitation.
       And in a more recent paper, using the mathematics of differential 
       geometry and general relativity, Dr Ho demonstrates that gravity can 
       be expressed mathematically as a coupling of two equal-and-opposite 
       electromagnetic fields. 

     . Jun Liu authors recent papers suggesting that the electromagnetic 
       potential is of paramount importance. Liu's theory predicts that "local" 
       effects can result from the potential in regions where the Maxwell
       fields vanish -- a violation of the theory of invariance under electric 
       gauge transformations. Liu theory predicts that time dilation will 
       occur in an electric potential. Saxl, Barker, and Keller have conducted 
       earlier experiments which demonstrate time dilation in an electric 

     . Ning Li, a consulting scientist to NASA's Marshall Space Center, 
       who we might presume to know something, authors papers about the 
       relationship of gravito-electric and and gravito-magnetic forces to
       the electromagnetic potential, and methods for generation of 
       gravitational effects with superconductor material. According to
       Dr Li -- "a detectable gravitomagnetic field, and in the presence 
       of a time-dependent applied magnetic vector potential field, a 
       detectable gravitoelectric field could be produced."

    How many clues do we need? Equal-and-opposite electric sources (dipole-
    charges and/or dipole-currents) appear to effect the electromagnetic 
    potential in ways which are indistinguishable from gravitation. And 
    you know what they say about things that look like a duck. 

    The net sum of equal and opposite electromagnetic vectors is a zero 
    vector, but it is NOT the same situation as no vector. For skeptics and 
    diehards who are still having a hard time accepting the idea of electro-
    gravitics, here's a simple experiment. Stand on a train track between 
    two locomotives which are pushing on you with equal force in opposite 
    directions. You will exhibit no net motion. None the less, you may soon 
    begin to notice that something important is happening.
    -- Robert Stirniman
                        ---End of Page 3---
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