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Robert Stirniman's
Antigravity Bibliography - 2

  National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Lewis Research Center,
  Presented at the 31st Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, San Diego CA,
  10-12 Jul. 1995; sponsored by AIAA, ASME, SAE, and ASEE NASA-TM-106963  
  E-9719 NAS 1.15:106963  AIAA PAPER 95-2601  Avail: CASI HC A03/MF A01
  Experiments were conducted to test assertions from Patent 3,610,971, by 
  W.J.Hooper that self-canceling electromagnetic coils can reduce the 
  weight of objects placed underneath. No weight changes were observed 
  within the detectability of the instrumentation. 
  More careful examination of the patent and other reports from Hooper
  led to the conclusion that Hooper may have misinterpreted thermal effects 
  as his 'Motional Field' effects. There is a possibility that the claimed 
  effects are below the detection thresholds of the instrumentation 
  used for these tests.
     CASI Accession Number: N95-28893

  I have two problems with the methodology used by the NASA scientists in 
  the above experiment. 
  First -- The amount of ampere-turns used in the NASA experiment was 
  substantially lower than the amount used by Hooper. Hooper found that 
  his effect increased in proportion the square of the current. If you 
  were motivated to verify that the Hooper effect exists, would you not 
  try to conduct the experiment with MORE current, rather than less? 
  Second -- NASA conducted it's tests by energizing the coils and making
  measurements in an immediate on-off mode, rather than letting things 
  run for a while as Hooper did. NASA's reason for doing this was to 
  avoid errors due to thermal effects. This makes sense. But what does 
  not make sense is that if you are trying to verify an original experiment 
  and you make changes, you have an obligation to also conduct the 
  experiment in it's original mode. To do otherwise is bad science. 
  But what could be wrong with testing things in an immediate on-off mode? 
  Well, it can be seen in other experiments that a gravitational effect 
  sometimes results from macroscopic spin alignment of the quantum 
  angular momentum of a large number of microscopic particles. It has
  been demonstrated in other experiments that it takes time for these 
  particles to come into alignment. For example in the inventions of 
  Henry Wallace it sometimes took minutes for the "kinemassic" gravito-
  magnetic field to fully manifest itself. The reason that it takes time 
  for particles to come into alignment, could be much the same reason that
  it takes time to permanently magnetize a magnet. Wallace found that the
  "kinemassic" effect occurs with elemental materials which have a component
  of unpaired spin in the atomic nucleus. This includes all common isotopes 
  of copper, which of course is the material used in Hooper's coils.
     Incidently, NASA essentially has an economic monopoly in the 
     lucrative market for microgravity materials research.  
     -- Robert Stirniman

   The Hooper effect can be readily demonstrated in the "Two Moving 
   Magnets Experiment". In this experiment, magnetic flux is provided by 
   equal strength opposite pole magnets, moving uniformly in opposite 
   directions. The induced motional electric field that is generated 
   in a conductor, is found to be twice that which would result from 
   a single magnet, while remarkably, the sum of the magnetic B field 
   is zero. This experiment is easy to setup and verify in any electronics 
   laboratory with a pair of magnets, a wire, and a voltmeter. In fact, 
   you may wrap the conductor, in electrostatic or magnetic shielding, 
   and find the same result. 
   -- Nils Rognerud

   Oleg Jefimenko, "Causality, Electromagnetic Induction, and Gravitation",
   Electret Scientific, Star City, (1992)

   Oleg Jefimenko, "Force Exerted on a Stationary Charge by a Moving 
   Electric Current or a Moving Magnet", American Journal of Physics, 
   Vol 61, pages 218-222 (1993)

    Apparently, there are some VERY interesting clues to the nature of the
    universe that are related to the phenomenon of SPIN.  It might get very
    interesting if someone were to make a project of assembling in one place
    all the information that has been observed, alleged, suspected, or 
    speculated about concerning unexpected effects related to spin, along 
    with all the traditional Newtonian results, stir, add some seasoning, 
    and see what comes out.
    For example, in quantum mechanics, if you want to measure the spin axis 
    of an electron, you do an experiment in which you ASSUME an axis, make a
    measurement of the correlation (the dot product) of that axis with
    the actual axis of spin for that electron, and theory says you can 
    determine at least how close your guess was.
    It was a major surprise for the first expermienters with this to find that
    the guess was always right: whatever spin axis you assume turns out to be
    correct, exactly dead accurate.  You must be a VERY good guesser.  Out of
    this experimental result came the concept of "isospin".  Which in itself
    is kind of weird in that objects with zero radius can still exhibit spinx.
    But I find the idea that the spin is wherever you guess it might be to be
    even weirder and to need a better model that predicts this result.
    -- John Sangster
    Paper: gr-qc/9311036
    From: jaegukim@cc.kangwon.ac.kr 
    Date: Tue, 30 Nov 93 13:47:52 +0900
    Gravitational Field of a Moving Spinning Point Particle, 
    by Jaegu Kim, 7 pages,
      The gravitational and electromagnetic fields of a moving charged
      spinning point particle are obtained in the Lorentz covariant form
      by transforming the Kerr--Newman solution in Boyer--Lindquist
      coordinates to the one in the coordinate system which resembles the
      isotropic coordinates and then covariantizing it. It is shown that
      the general relativistic proper time at the location of the particle
      is the same as the special relativistic one and the gravitational
      and electromagnetic self forces vanish.

    Jaegu Kim, "Gravitational Field of a Moving Point Particle", Journal
    of the Korean Physical Society, Vol 27 No 5, Oct 94, Pages 484-492

    Jaegu Kim, "Gravitational Field of a Moving Spinning Point Particle",
    Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol 27 No 5, Oct 94, Pages 479-483

    In the above papers, Dr. Kim derives solutions for the Einstein-Maxwell 
    equations for: a charged massless point particle, a point particle having 
    mass but no charge, a point particle having mass and charge, a massless 
    point particle with charge and spin, and finally -- a point particle having 
    charge, mass, and spin. He determines that there is a region of space 
    around a charged spinning mass in which the gravitational force is negative. 

    The ability to generate a negative gravity effect may come as no surprise 
    to experimenters who have worked with Bose-Einstein condensates, superfluids,
    or superconductor material in which the angular momentum of quantum level 
    particles can become aligned along a "macroscopic" spin axis. And it is 
    probably also not a surprise to those who have looked at devices such as 
    the inventions of Henry Wallace, in which a macroscopic body is mechanically 
    spun at high speed in order to cause a "kinemassic" gravito-magnetic field 
    due to spin alignment of the nucleus of elemental materials having an odd 
    number of nucleons (un-paired spin). 

    Paper: GR-QC/9504023
    Date: Mon, 17 Apr 1995 10:43:50 +0900
    Title: Pure spin-connection formulation of gravity and classification 
           of energy-momentum tensors
    Author: Mathias PILLIN 
    Report-no: YITP/U-95-12
      It is shown how the different irreducibility classes of the
      energy-momentum tensor allow for a pure spin-connection formulation.
      Ambiguities in this formulation especially concerning the need for
      constraints are clarified.

    From: R.Bursill@sheffield.ac.uk (R Bursill)
    Subject: Hi Tc SC and gravitational shielding
    Date: Fri, 6 Oct 1995 03:14:41 GMT

    Is anyone familiar with the experiments in Tampere Finland, by
    Podkletnov et al on weak gravitational shielding from a Meissner 
    levitating, rotating disk of high-Tc superconducting material?
    The paper is: E. Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, Physica C 203 (1992) 441.
    E. Podkletnov and A. D. Levit have another paper now, a Tampere
    University of Technology report, January 1995 (Finland),
    the experiment having being repeated (I assume no one
    believed it the first time?).
    In the 1st experiment a 5 g sample of silicon dioxide was found
    to loose around 0.05 % of its weight when placed at a distance of
    15 mm from the SC disk. The SC disk had diameter 145 mm and thickness
    6 mm.  Under rotation of the disk the effect increased up to 0.3 %.
    In the 2nd experiment samples of different composition and
    weight (10-50 g) were placed at distances of 25 mm to 1.5 m from
    the disk. The mass loss went as high as around 2 %.
    I found out about this through a theoretical preprint by Giovanni
    Modanese, a Von Humboldt Fellow from the Max Plank institute. The
    preprint no. is MPI-PhT/95-44, May 1995. A colleage got it from
    hep-th@babbage.sissa.it, paper 9505094. Modanese thinks that it is
    something to do with the bose condensate from the SC interacting
    with the gravitational field. He uses some non-perturbative quantum
    theory on the Regge lattice to attempt to understand the effect.
    Must be a little bit like explaining cold fusion with the standard
    tools - couldn't be done. We all know what happened to cold fusion
    but at the time a professor from my department said in a public
    lecture that the product of the believability and the potential
    importance if true was of order 1.
    - Robert Bursill

    E. Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, "A Possibility of Gravitational
    Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconductor", 
    Physica C 203 (1992) pp 441-444.
    E. Podkletnov and A.D. Levi, "Gravitational Shielding Properties
    of Composite Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconductor Below 70 C Under
    Electro-Magnetic Field", Tampere University of Technology report
    MSU-95 chem, January 1995.

    Theoretical analysis of a reported weak gravitational shielding effect
    Author: G. Modanese (Max-Planck-Institut, Munich)
    Report-no: MPI-PhT/95-44   May 1995
       Under special conditions (Meissner-effect levitation and rapid
       rotation) a disk of high-Tc superconducting material has recently
       been found to produce a weak shielding of the gravitational field.
       We show that this phenomenon has no explanation in the standard
       gravity theories, except possibly in the non-perturbative quantum
       theory on the Regge lattice. More data, and independent repetitions
       of the experiment are however necessary.

    From: Modanese Giovanni 
    Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 21:54:45 +0100 (MET)
    Updating the analysis of Tampere's weak gravitational shielding experiment
    Author: Giovanni Modanese
    Report-no: UTF-367/96
         The most recent data about the weak gravitational shielding produced
         in Tampere by Podkletnov and coworkers through a levitating and
         rotating HTC superconducting disk show a very weak dependence of the
         shielding value ($\sim 1 \%$) on the height above the disk. We show
         that whilst this behaviour is incompatible with an intuitive
         vectorial picture of the shielding, it is consistently explained by
         our theoretical model. The expulsive force observed at the border of
         the shielded zone is due to energy conservation.       

    NASA is conducting experiments similar to the anti-gravity shielding 
    experiments done in Tampere Finland. A scientist named Ning Li at the 
    University of Alabama Huntsville, is reported to be consulting with NASA. 
    She has written some interesting articles about the relationship between 
    superconductors and gravtiation. Here are references to some of her 
    published articles, and a few related items:

    AUTHOR(s):       Li, Ning and Torr, D.G.
    TITLE(s)         Effects of a Gravitomagnetic Field on pure superconductors
               In:   Phys. Rev. D, 
                     JAN 15 1993 v 43 n 2  Page 457  

    AUTHOR(s):       Torr, Douglas G.  Li, Ning 
    TITLE(s):        Gravitoelectric-Electric Coupling via Superconductivity. 
               In:   Foundations of physics letters. 
                     AUG 01 1993 v 6 n 4  Page 371 

    AUTHOR(s):       Li, Ning  and Torr, D.G. 
    TITLE(s):        Gravitational effects on the magnetic attenuation of
               In:   Physical review.  b,  condensed matter. 
                     SEP 01 1992 v 46 n 9  Page 5489 

    AUTHOR(s):       Peng, Huei 
    TITLE(s):        A New Approach to Studying Local Gravitomagnetic Effects on
                     a Superconductor.                                          
               In:   General relativity and gravitation. 
                     JUN 01 1990 v 22 n 6  Page 609 

    AUTHOR(s):       Mashhoon, Bahram   Paik, Jung Ho   Will, Clifford M. 
    TITLE(s):        Detection of the gravitomagnetic field using an orbiting
                     superconducting gravity gradiometer. Theoretical principles.
               In:   Physical review.  D,  Particles and fields. 
                     MAY 15 1989 v 39 n 10  Page 2825 

    I haven't had the opportunity to read the articles by Drs. Li and Torr,
    but I am told that in one of her articles, Dr Li provides the following
    interesting comment --

         " a detectable gravitomagnetic field, and in the presence of a 
           time-dependent applied magnetic vector potential field, a 
           detectable gravitoelectric field could be produced"

    There is also some information about Dr Ning Li at: 

    Dr Li is with the Applied Materials Lab at the University of Alabama 
    at Huntsville. She works closely with Dr Douglas Torr. One of their primary
    interests is development and production of exotic materials in a microgravity 
    environment -- a peculiar coincidence, or maybe not, with the writing 
    of physical theories about how to produce anti-gravity in the laboratory. 

    Here's an unusual article from the website.
       Can gravity be 'made' in the laboratory?

       A theory that might lead to the creation of measurable manmade
       gravitational fields has been developed by physicists at UAH.
       If the theoretical work is borne out in the laboratory, it will prove
       that physicist Albert Einstein was correct in predicting that moving
       matter generates two kinds of gravitational fields: gravito-magnetic
       and gravito-electric. The 'artificial' gravitational field would be
       generated inside a container made of a superconducting material, said
       Dr. Douglas Torr, a research professor of physics and director of
       UAH's Optical Aeronomy Laboratory. "I think we can at the very least
       generate a microscopic field ..." If Einstein was right, the amount of
       gravito-magnetic energy produced by an object is proportional to its
       mass and its movement, explained Dr. Ning Li, a research scientist in
       UAH's Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research. To create the
       artificial gravitational fields, Torr and Li propose placing a
       superconducting container in a magnetic field to align ions that are
       spinning or rotating in tiny circles inside the superconducting
       material. Their theory predicts the existence of ionic spin or
       rotation in a superconductor in a magnetic field.

    There are persistent rumors among UFO-buffs that NASA already has an 
    operating microgravity chamber, located in Houston TX and/or Huntsville AL. 
    One person, Robert Oechsler, reports that he has personally been inside 
    NASA's antigrav chamber. But, that's another story. For more info, see 
    the books "Alien Contact" and "Alien Update" by Timothy Good. 

    Paper: hep-th/9412243
    From: Vu.Ho@sci.monash.edu.au
    Date: Sat, 31 Dec 1994 17:06:38 +1100
    Title: Gravity as a coupling of two electromagnetic fields
    Author: Vu B Ho
      A discussion on a possibility to represent gravity as a coupling of
      two equal and opposite electrogmanetic fields. Classically the 
      existence of equal and opposite electromagnetic fields can be 
      ignored altogether. However, the problem can be viewed differently 
      if we want to take into account possible quantum effects. We know 
      that in quantum mechanics the potentials themselves may be significant 
      and they may determine the dynamics of a particle in a region where 
      the fields vanish. (Aharonov and Bohm 1959, Peshkin and Tonomura 1983)
    Ho, Vu B.  Morgan, Michael J.  Monash University, Clayton, Victoria,
    Australia 1994 8 PAGES, Australian Journal of Physics 
    (ISSN 0004-9506) vol. 47, no. 3 1994 p. 245-252 HTN-95-92507
      The gravitational Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is examined in the weak-field
      approximation to general relativity. In analogy with the electromagnetic AB
      effect, we find that a gravitoelectromagnetic 4-vector potential gives rise 
      to interference effects. A matter wave interferometry experiment, based on a
      modification of the gravity-induced quantum interference experiment of
      Colella, Overhauser and Werner (COW), is proposed to explicitly test the
      gravitoelectric version of the AB effect in a uniform gravitational field.
      CASI Accession Number: A95-87327

    I recommend you get a copy of Aharonov and Bohm's classic paper
    "Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory"
    published in The Physical Review in 1959. One of the important things
    that Aharonov and Bohm did was to demonstrate that the electromagnetic 
    potentials are richer in properties than the Maxwell fields. The field 
    is an artifical mathematical construct from which emerges the whole idea 
    of a continuum. When you can wean yourself of this intellectual crutch 
    you will be ready to do real physics. Both GR and QM are addicted to 
    the same falsehood.
    -- Charles Cagle
    In the Aharonov-Bohm effect it has been determined theortically and 
    experimentally that there is a measurable effect on a charged particle 
    due to the electromagnetic vector potential. Which of course would be no 
    surprise, except that the effect occurs even in areas of space where 
    the value of the classical electromagnetic fields vanish. A quantum 
    phase shift, detectable via particle interferometry, is found to occur 
    due to the magnetic vector potential A. The effect on a charged particle 
    occurs in regions which are completely shielded from classical 
    electromagnetic fields. 

    A dual of the Aharonov-Bohm effect is the Aharonov-Casher effect,
    where it is shown that measurable effects of spin-precession of a 
    particle's magnetic moment can occur due to the electric potential, 
    even in areas of space where the classical electrical field is 
    completely absent.

    Prior to the revolutionary paper by Aharonov and Bohm in 1959, the 
    importance of the electomagnetic potential and related interferometry 
    effects, was suggested in articles by Edmund Whittaker in 1903 and 1904.
    And, what is now known as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, was explicitly 
    identified in an earlier paper on electron optics by Ehrenberg and 
    Siday in 1949.

    E.T. Whittaker, "On the partial differential equations of mathematical 
    physics," Mathematische Annalen, Vol 57, 1903, pages 333-355.   
      In this paper Whittaker demonstrates that all scalar EM potentials have 
      an internal, organized, bidirectional EM plane-wave structure. Thus 
      there exists an electromagnetics that is totally internal to the scalar 
      EM potential. Since vacuum/spacetime is scalar potential, then this 
      internal EM is in fact "internal" to the local potentialized vacuum/
    -- Tom Bearden  

    E.T. Whittaker, "On an expression of the electromagnetic field due to 
    electrons by means of two scalar potential functions," Proceedings of 
    the London Mathematical Society, Series 2, Vol 1, 1904, pages 367-372.  
      In this paper Whittaker shows that all of classical electromagnetics  
      can be replaced by scalar potential interferometry. This ignored paper 
      anticipated the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect by 55 years, and drastically  
      extended it as well. Indeed, it prescribes a macroscopic AB effect that  
      is distance-independent, providing a direct and engineerable mechanism 
      for action-at-a-distance. It also provides a testable hidden-variable
      theory that predicts drastically new and novel effects.
    -- Tom Bearden

    W. Ehrenberg and R. W. Siday, Proc. Phys. Soc. London, B62, 8 (1949) 
      Ten years earlier than Aharonov and Bohm, Ehrenberg and Siday 
      formulated the science of electron optics by defining the electron 
      refractive-index as a function of electromagnetic potential. Near the 
      end of their paper, they discuss "a curious effect", which is exactly the 
      AB effect. On the two sides of a magnetic flux, the vector potential has 
      different values. This means a different refractive index for two 
      geometrically equivalent paths. This difference in refractive index 
      would cause an observable phase shift.
    -- Jun Liu

    Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm, "Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials 
    in the Quantum Theory," Physical Review, Second Series, Vol 115 no 3, 
    pages 485-491 (1959) 
     Effects of potentials on charged particles exist even in the region 
     where all the fields (and therefore the forces on the particles) vanish, 
     contrary to classical electrodynamics. The quantum effects are due to 
     the phenomenon of interference. These effects occur in spite of Faraday 
     shielding. The Lorentz force does not appear anywhere in the fundamental 
     quantum theory, but appears only as an approximation that holds in the
     classical limit. In QM, the fundamental physical entities are the
     potentials, while the fields are derived from them by differentiation.

    Herman Erlichson, "Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Quantum Effects on Charged
    Particles in Field-Free Regions," American Journal of Physics, 
    Vol 38 No 2, Pages 162-173 (1970).

    M. Danos, "Bohm-Aharonov effect. The quantum mechanics of the electrical
    transformer," American Journal of Physics, Vol 50 No 1, pgs 64-66 (1982).

    Bertram Schwarzschild, "Currents in normal-metal rings exhibit 
    Aharonov-Bohm Effect," Physics Today, Vol 39 No 1, pages 17-20 (Jan 1986)  

    S. Olariu and I. Iovitzu Popescu, "The quantum effects of electromagnetic 
    fluxes,"  Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol 57 No2, April 1985. 

    Yoseph Imry and Richard Webb, "Quantum Interference and the Aharonov-
    Bohm Effect", Scientific American, April 1989, pages 56-62

    E. Merzbacher, "Single Valuedness of Wave Functions", American Journal
    of Physics, Vol 30 No 4, pages 237-247 (April 1962)

    Yoseph Imry, "The Physics of Mesoscopic Systems", Directions in Condensed
    Matter Physics, World Scientific Publishing (1986)

    Richard Webb and Sean Washburn, "Quantum Interference Fluctuations 
    in Disordered Metals", Physics Today, Vol 41 No 12 pages 46-53, Dec 1989 

    "STAR WARS NOW! The Bohm-Aharonov Effect, Scalar Interferometry, and 
    Soviet Weaponization"  By T. E. Bearden, Tesla Book Company 

    Peshkin M. and Lipkin H.J. "Topology, Locality, and Aharonov-Bohm 
    Effect with Neutrons" Physical review letters APR 10 1995 v 74 n 15 

    Yakir Aharonov and Ady Stern, "Origin of the geometric forces 
    accompanying Berry's geometric potentials", Physical Review letters. 
    DEC 21 1992 v 69 n 25  Page 3593 

    Yakir Aharonov, Jeeva Anandan, and Sandu Popescu, "Superpositions of 
    time evolutions of a quantum system and a quantum time-translation 
    machine."  Physical review letters. JUN 18 1990 v 64 n 25  Page 2965 

    problem. Liu's theory violates the concept of invariance of physical 
    The Aharonov-Bohm effect has sparked a revolution in physical thought. 
    There are a variety of new ideas and experiments, such as verification 
    of Liu's theory, which could soon begin to fan it to a flame. When the 
    flame becomes sufficiently illuminating, watch the political scientists 
    begin to scramble for a comfortable seat nearer the fire. 
    -- Robert Stirniman
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